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I include this book review which I posted on Amazon because it deals with the American Industrial Revolution which was fostered by the American Energy Revolution. This review is of Robert Gordon’s new book entitled: “The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living since the Civil War”(The Princeton Economic History of the Western World) (Hardcover)
This is a remarkable book by noted economist Robert Gordon and his team of undergraduates and graduate assistants who did much of the heavy lifting collecting data and histories of the American experience of the last 145 years from 1870 to the present. His thesis briefly stated is that progress and the great inventions and innovations of the period primarily from 1870 to 1940 were transformational like no other period before or since and are not likely to be repeated. Gordon states that these great “innovations” were among others, the invention and distribution of electricity, the light bulb, the telephone, the radio, indoor plumbing, clean water, the invention of the internal combustion engine, the automobile and the airplane, cleaning up the food supply and elimination of the horse with its associated manure pollution were the great innovations of the period and responsible for the enormous growth and development of the United States. His conclusion is that this growth period is now over and not likely to be repeated. His economist critics say “Nonsense!”. The next epoch will have a whole new revolution of Artificial intelligence, robotics, and so forth to continue the growth process.Gordon’s conclusion is that the party is over as the title of the book implies. I have high praise for the first third of the book which covers the period from 1870 to 1940. The next 30 years were primarily improvements to the innovations of the first 70 years and the last 40 years to the present are remarkable only for the computer age and improvements in communications. The first third of the book is worth the price of the book and is a must read for the most dynamic period in American History and as a readable economic historian, Robert Gordon has few peers with the exception of perhaps J.K. Galbraith. The glaring flaw in this book is the same glaring flaw in most contemporary books by economists. Economists look at this enormously productive period and explain and measure it by outputs, productivity, GDP, income,capital flows, labor efficiency and productivity and a myriad of other statistical analyses. What these economists and what Gordon misses entirely are the causes of this incredible growth. Why did this period happen to this country when it did? Gordon says that it was an unprecedented flowering of genius and invention occurring in a new world of seemingly unbounded resources and promise far removed from the stagnation, wars and decay of the Old World. It was indeed that. But Why? How? Gordon almost nowhere in the book uses the term “Industrial Revolution” in his explication. But of course that is what it was. It was a continuation of the Industrial Revolution running on coal which began in England a hundred years before but in the case of the United States, it was a turbocharged industrial revolution. But again. Why here? Why then? This period happened when it did and where it did primarily for one single reason. It was a revolution powered by almost free energy never before available in the history of the world. The United States had fossil energy in huge quantities which came on line just before 1870. The first oil well was sunk in Pennsylvania in 1859 and invention of the first internal combustion engine followed just 15 years later. Firewood and coal were just becoming available in huge quantities and it was this cheap and abundant energy which allowed the utilization and exploitation of the other abundant resources of the New World. The jump in productivity was made possible because it was now machines instead of animal and human muscle that was unleashed by the energy from coal and oil. Amazingly in 762 pages, this is given scant attention . Energy to an economist is a subset of the economy. In fact the economy is a subset of energy in this writer’s opinion. Gordon also misses in his conclusions why growth in America is falling and will continue to fall. Earth is a finite planet with finite resources and finite energy resources. The wealth of America was facilitated by almost free energy which generated enormous productivity gains, innovations, a population explosion and sadly unimaginable pollution and societal complexity yielding ever more diminishing returns. It is stunning to me that Gordon misses this possible conclusion why American Growth is at an end
It is impossible for and unsophisticated observer to understand the dynamics of what is going on in the petroleum market and extremely difficult for a sophisticated observer to follow the trends in supply/demand given the sheer number of voices reporting their opinions.
In this post I want to announce a stunning new opinion first reported on the blog “Cassandra’s Legacy” authored by Ugo Bardi who resides in Florence. See: http://cassandralegacy.blogspot.com/2016/07/some-reflections-on-twilight-of-oil-age.html.
In his July 12 2016 blog, Ugo reported on the work by the Hills group
(http://www.thehillsgroup.org). , who are a group of engineers who have been studying the decline in net delivered energy to society from petroleum. They posit the shocking opinion that the end of the oil age as we know it could be upon us in just a decade. They base their opinion of the steady decline in net energy available since the first well was drilled in Pennsylvania in 1859 to where we are now with various unconventional sources of oil whose extraction and delivery are demanding ever more energy to deliver the end product to the consumers. Simply put, it takes oil energy to get oil energy and when we reach the point where the amount of energy expended matches the energy obtained, the game is over. Let me post a segment from Ugo’s first of three posts from the Hills group which illustrates their alarming conclusion:
The end of the Oil Age is now
If we had a whole century ahead of us to transition, it would be comparatively easy. Unfortunately, we no longer have that leisure since the second key challenge is the remaining time frame for whole system replacement. What most people miss is that the rapid end of the Oil Age began in 2012 and will be over within some 10 years. To the best of my knowledge, the most advanced material in this matter is the thermodynamic analysis of the oil industry taken as a whole system (OI) produced by The Hill’s Group (THG) over the last two years or so (http://www.thehillsgroup.org).
THG are seasoned US oil industry engineers led by B.W. Hill. I find its analysis elegant and rock hard. For example, one of its outputs concerns oil prices. Over a 56 year time period, its correlation factor with historical data is 0.995. In consequence, they began to warn in 2013 about the oil price crash that began late 2014 (see: http://www.thehillsgroup.org/depletion2_022.htm). In what follows I rely on THG’s report and my own work.
Three figures summarize the situation we are in rather well, in my view.
Figure 1 – End Game
For purely thermodynamic reasons net energy delivered to the globalized industrial world (GIW) per barrel by the oil industry (OI) is rapidly trending to zero. By net energy we mean here what the OI delivers to the GIW, essentially in the form of transport fuels, after the energy used by the OI for exploration, production, transport, refining and end products delivery have been deducted.
However, things break down well before reaching “ground zero”; i.e. within 10 years the OI as we know it will have disintegrated. Actually, a number of analysts from entities like Deloitte or Chatham House, reading financial tea leaves, are progressively reaching the same kind of conclusions.
The Oil Age is finishing now, not in a slow, smooth, long slide down from “Peak Oil”, but in a rapid fizzling out of net energy. This is now combining with things like climate change and the global debt issues to generate what I call a “Perfect Storm” big enough to bring the GIW to its knees.
I would urge the interested reader to read the posts and go to the Hills group website to explore the details of their methodology. To say that their conclusions are earth shattering would be an understatement.
I have spent time analyzing their data and conclusions and implicit in their work is that it applies on the margin for new supply. There are legacy oil fields where the energy expended to deliver the oil is low because of sunk costs and infrastructure constructed decades ago but for new sources it is a different story. The Hills Group does not say that we will have no oil in 10 years. They just state that the energy costs of acquiring new oil are steadily climbing and as time goes on society gets less and less energy and less exergy, or the ability to perform work from each bbl of oil.
From my reading I understand that they are talking about the energy available just in oil to get oil energy. Other energy sources like coal or gas or nuclear energy can and is utilized to obtain oil. Their point is on the net oil energy available after expending oil energy to explore, drill, process and distribute that oil. In most cases oil energy is the only feasible energy available.
I would like to add a few points some of which were covered in the Cassandra’s Legacy blog and some not. Fossil fuels supply 86 % of world energy and the Hills group state that 88% of oil energy is “wasted”. The percentage breakdown of that “waste” was not broken down in any of the data I was able to examine but the largest waste was unavoidable thermodynamic waste inherent in the conversion from the chemical energy in the oil into thermal energy and mechanical energy as it is burned or oxidized. I assume that the thermodynamic losses relate to the enthalpy of the reaction combusting the hydrocarbons. Energy is consumed breaking bonds and energy is released forming new bonds in the products of combustion. For example cleaving the carbon/hydrogen bond is an endothermic process. It requires energy to break that bond. The products are CO2 and H20 which bond formation releases more energy than breaking the C/H bonds. Most of the energy consumed in an engine or power plant is wasted and dissipated as heat. Gas engines can be as low as 20% efficient and diesel engines can approach 40%. It is much the same with power plants whether burning oil or coal. Older plants are as low as 30% efficient and as high as 40% but that is still a lot of waste. After exploration, production, refining, and delivery energy costs have been deducted, then that oil is burned in an engine which is only 20-40% efficient. It is pretty shocking how much we waste. In the case of a 4000 lb automobile, most of the energy is used to get the mass of the car down the road with the human occupants only a tiny percentage of that car’s mass. The blog and the monographs also failed to mention the fact that since about the mid 60’s, the amount of new discoveries of oil failed to keep pace with world consumption. In 2014 or 2015, if memory serves ,the world used about 31 billion bbls of oil and new discoveries totaled a bit less than 3 billion bbls and the cost of finding those 3 billion bbls has been going up about 7% a year since about 2000. Clearly business as usual(BAU) cannot continue with these numbers. Either we are going to have to use a whole lot less oil or find a whole lot more. If what new oil we find is too expensive for society, it will crash the economy. But sustained low oil prices will crash the oil industry. If the Hills group conclusions are right that the loss of this resource will be driven by thermodynamic factors and not financial or debt factors then we are entering a new paradigm. My draw from the work of the Hills group is that oil availability will be rapidly diminishing in the next 10-15 years and if net energy declines as they propose, this rodeo will be over. The end of the oil age may be sooner than we think.
Narrative history of our Cal 48 KOHO
Well the day has finally arrived to pass on our beloved Koho to someone who will take care of her. We purchased KOHO in Tampa in 1998, trucked her to Portland OR where we worked on her and then to Pocatello ID to continue work on her and then to Napa CA to finish the job. I tried to follow the recommendations of a very complete marine survey by RD Shelley in Tampa, FLA as well as my own refit desires. In 2005 we headed south from the Bay Area to spend the Fall and winter in Mexico with the goal of heading across the Pacific in the spring. I had totally rebuilt and refurbished the 1967 Yawl personally and with expert help. Major life events abrogated our world cruising plans and she was dry-docked in San Carlos MX for a few years. In 2009 my daughter Heidi and I sailed her back from southern Mexico to Alaska where she had remained in dry storage in Hoonah, Alaska, a beautiful native community across from Glacier Bay Natl Park. I brought her back to the Pacific Northwest in May 2014. I have some current photos taken there last summer. We cruised her a summer visiting old haunts and harbors in SE Alaska but changes to my health necessitate selling this sturdy, swiftboat to someone who will use her. I will post info on these fabulous Cal racers but I see the Cal48 has a facebook page here http://www.facebook.com/#!/pages/CAL-48-Yachts/102018083197140. KOHO also has a Facebook page called Koho Owens created by Heidi here.. with more pictures.
KOHO will be for sale for $39K which is less than the cost of her refit. She needs little in the way of work to head across the Gulf of Alaska or around the world. She is primarily set up for Northwest cruising with extensive and expensive electronics(Furuno) including radar, chart plotter and charts, multiple depth sounders including a powerful internal furuno transducer. The Interphase depth sounder has fwd looking and side scanning modes making it extremely useful navigating into uncharted waters and among pinnacles. It slides out on a track easily seen from the cockpit. I have a full complement of Paper charts but we almost always used a laptop with charts using the Maxsea navigational software.We have CD charts of the ENTIRE WORLD which will go with KOHO.. I added a color LCD display mounted in the cockpit which not only outputted the charts but also Nav Data and even the Furuno 36 mile color Radar NAVNET display. She also has the optional Furuno Weatherfax/Navtex unit which was very valuable in the Pacific. Koho has 2 Furuno GPSs and an ICOM VHF radio with 2 antennas She sports a commercial hydraulic auto pilot(WH) as well as a canvas sided pilothouse with hard aluminum dodger topped with a large array of solar panels which run all electronics and keep the batteries topped up without the need to run the engine which has a 90 amp and large 200 amp twin belted alternators. She has ample diesel tankage. Her base cupronickel 70 gal factory tank plus an added 50 gallon aluminum keel tank. I installed a fuel polishing system which constantly cleans the tanks when we are under power by means of circulating the fuel through large Racor filters. She has a diesel cookstove(Adriatic) as well as a deluxe Aussie Broadwater propane stove and oven. We lost our Hood furler near a minimal Cat 1 hurricane in Mexico but she sails very fast with just hank on sails as she takes little in the way of canvas to make 8-9 knots. We added new sails for her return trip to Alaska from Mexico. She has 2 mains, staysail, storm trysail, storm jib, a 100% jib and a few rarely used genoas. We blew out our little mizzen in a gale off Oregon so she will need a new mizzen. During the same gale our old fully battened main parted and we completed the voyage on a backup main. She has all new over strength 316 SS rigging(3/8″), new oversize super duplex stainless chainplates and mast tangs, and bronze 5/8″turnbuckles with sta-lok or Norseman terminals. The rigging and mast is grounded below water by bronze and copper bolts and strapping for lightning protection running full length along the keel. We skirted a tropical depression in MX and sailed in numerous gales on the trip up the West Coast on our way to Alaska. This is one strong boat. Before the refit, not so much. I was formerly a commercial fisherman in the Gulf(Alaska) and have seen some really rough weather and KOHO saw quite a lot of Force 6-8 conditions with no worries. She is sleek, dry and fast and underwent extensive hull and deck and bulkhead reinforcement to all bulkheadswith epoxy fiberglass, a layer of kevlar and laminated yellow cedar forward for impact protection, and a 5/16” steel shoe on the fwd keel . One of our intended destinations as the South Atlantic and Antarctica and hull and rig strength was foremost in our minds. She has sheet urethane foam insulation in hull and deck which keeps her warm and dry below with no annoying water drips. An overhead was installed using Off white vinyl and #932 eggshell Formical attached to ¼” plywood, screwed to epoxy fastened backing strips facilitating easy removal for later maintenance. The boat from the factory had only painted fiberglass overhead, and cabin sole. Two Laminated deck beams and additional plywood were added under high stress areas like deck tracks and under the heavy windlass. She had 2 small areas under the sidedeck staysail tracks with some dry rot which was repaired with injected West Epoxy following their detailed instructions. Her hull to deck joint was cleaned and sanded and lifted off the hull and reattached with #5200 and rebolted with SS bolts and then re fastened and epoxy glassed inside and out to solve the problem of hull to deck leaks, a common problem in older racers. All the bulkheads were then reglassed to the deck and reinforced where needed with many layers of epoxy and glass especially in high stress areas in the fwd bulkheads. The leak prone Teak toerail was removed and replaced with a ½”X2” aluminum toerail and black ¾” X 2” UHMW rub strips bolted or blind tapped to the hull for protection against barnacle encrusted pilings and other boats. New cleats were added which were bolted to ¼” aluminum plates and aluminum angle which were in turn bolted to bulkheads where possible. Virtually all the blocks were replaced with new Garhauer ss units. In the cold wet Alaskan climate she is warm and dry with her diesel Dickinson stove. Additionally, she has 2 electric 110V baseboard heaters under the salon settes for use in port. She has a large powerful Ideal vertical windlass with 400′ of HT 3/8”chain. The windlass can be operated in the bow with foot controls as well as in the cockpit and has a SS handle for backup hoisting of the 66 lb Bruce anchor. She may be sold with our NZ aluminum hull Hypalon inflatable. She has a Isuzu 60 hp diesel with about 660 hours with a feathering adjustable Italian made 22″ 3 BLADE MAX PROP. She is highly maneuverable with her spade rudder and under power with her large 3 blade feathering prop. She has a large V berth stateroom forward. Aft to port is the forward head with a Lavac toilet used offshore only. Across from the fwd head is a large cedar lined hanging locker with light. Aft is the main salon with a slide out settee berth. Outboard of that is a secure sea berth with lee cloths. She has aqua Naugahyde like upholstery and high density cushions throughout which are in v. good condition, many lightly used. To port in the salon I eliminated the full length settee berth and pilot berths and converted them to food and book and gear storage. The long folding 6′ long salon table was removed and replaced with 2 small folding eating tables. The table was removed because in the narrow hull, it dominated the salon making any movement difficult when folded down and impossible when deployed. Koho has an enormous teak cockpit and we found our family always took our meals there instead of below. I did take care in the salon remodel by leaving virtually all the original cabinet and furniture structure intact and my added cabinetry was attached to the existing framing with aluminum and steel angle brackets. This would allow a later owner to restore the interior to her original racing configuration should he or she so desire. To continue the tour: aft of the port salon is the Dickinson cookstove mounted centrally with the ss flue exiting the hull in the midline. Above deck the flue has strong 316 ss grab rails protecting it from errant lines, sails etc. SS grab rails also protect the deck dorades. To port along the hull is a large gimbaled Broadwater propane stove with oven and broiler. Over this stove I added an opening Bomar deck hatch for ventilation. This stove has an electric shut off solenoid on the two 7.5 gal aluminum propane tanks which are located aft of the mizzen masts on deck. After two failures in 3 years(one replaced under warranty) we elected to turn off the tanks manually. The poorly insulated Cal 48 icebox was replaced with a foam insulated custom fridge with a Glacier Bay type vacupanel lid. It is cooled by a 1/2 horse 12 V powered commercial compressor utilizing a water cooled cupronickel condenser and ss holding plate.All maintenance controls are easily accessed below the Port berth. Additionally it has a finned air cooled condenser for use in dry storage. To starboard is the unusual salon entry ladder flanking a large hanging locker which we used for food storage. The small shallow sink was replaced with a deep double ss sink with both fresh and saltwater faucets. The fresh water is accessed by foot pump. The fresh water tanks are expensive cupronickel like the diesel tank. They are over 45 years old and have never leaked a drop! the fresh water has a delicious taste as well. Initially we had a new pressure freshwater pump and accumulator tank installed but disconnected it when we headed across the Pacific to abrogate the accidental depletion of the water tanks. We now use only hand and foot pumps.
Continuing the tour aft you pass through a companionway door into the aft cabin. To stbd is the Nav station, to port is the aft head with another Lavac . This head diverts waste to a holding tank or overboard by a valve. I should mention that all the ancient gate valve sea cocks were replaced with marine ball valve units with new marine hose with all new SS hose clamps. Aft of the head is a double berth. Aft of the Nav Station is a quarter berth traditionally the off watch berth of the skipper. The Nav station is the electronic heart of the boat with a large 12V breaker panel above and 110 V breakers below, well separated for safety. A Prosine inverter/charger is mounted below. The boat was entirely rewired with tinned copper marine grade wiring with subpanels distributed throughout the boat facilitating troubleshooting of circuits. The original boat had only 2 110V outlets using non marine #14 gauge automobile quality wiring and outdated house breakers. The 12V wiring was a few old #14 and #16 gauge circuits with a mix of old breakers and fuses, poorly secured and difficult to access. Treadmaster covered steps allow access to the pilothouse/dodger area. The drop boards are ¾” teak or ¾” acrylic for good bombproof visibility! The cockpit has a thick laminated glass dodger forward and vinyl windows port, starboard and aft. In warm weather the pilothouse curtains can be lifted and secured. The top of the pilothouse is Aluminum and it is well braced. There is an acrylic hatch in the roof to view the sails and the sides have fiddles to collect rainwater along with SS rails for outboard safety. I designed the pilothouse to be removable for truck transport and we have removed the house both times we trucked Koho across the country. It takes half a day to reassemble and re bolt the house. Both in the pilothouse and below are ample and sturdy grab SS grap rails replacing flimsy teak rails for security in a rolling seaway. Some double as webbing attachment for deck gear such as the Inflatable. I replaced the low and flimsy factory stanchions and pulpits with thick wall 36″ high 316 SS stanchions using 316 ss sockets of my own design with fish netting for safety. Her aft factory cable quadrant steering was rebuilt with new cable, sprockets and bearings . At sea we rarely steered with anything other than the WH autopilot remote which was powerful, sensitive and accurate and allowed movement forward for enhanced visibility. Aft of the cockpit is the mizzen mast which does double duty as a mounting platform for the electronics. Both masts have steps to the top for facilitating rig inspection and maintenance chores. There is an Aires Windvane mounted on the stern which we used once to confirm it worked properly(which it did). We disconnected the wind vane lines. It remains as a a backup in case the WH autopilot fails. It never has. I prefer to steer by a heading rather than by wind direction. The WH hydraulic/electric autopilot is the same design as what I had installed on my 80,000 lb commercial Halibut/Salmon troller where it never failed in the at times rough Gulf of Alaska. It performed flawlessly on the recent trip south from Alaska in May 2014, steering virtually the entire way.
The hull was double epoxy sealed barrier coated using the WEST System and Copperpoxy followed by conventional antifouling paint. When I purchased her she had a few small blisters despite a well done epoxy barrier coat by her previous owner in Florida. She has been blister free ever since despite spending years in warm Mexican waters as well as in SE Alaska. The spade rudder was removed and X-rayed to inspect the internal steel framing for corrosion, None was found and additional epoxy fiberglass was added. The rudder tube was also epoxy/graphite lined and reinforced per WEST system recommendations to reduce friction. There is a Gore Tex bearing/seal the the top of the rudder housing which has never leaked.
KOHO was painted with Epoxy and top coated with Sterling 2 part LP in 2005. The hull has lost luster and the deck could use a fresh coat after 9 years of wear and tear. Belatedly I must mention that during this long expensive refit,
No boat is perfect and Koho by now after 4 years in the harsh Alaskan climate will need some cosmetic attention. I removed the shower and water heater for our transpacific trip because her tankage is just 90 gallons.The cockpit and below deck teak may need re varnishing and there may be leaks in all the usual places boats can leak. The electronics were all functional when I left her but electronics age just like the rest of us. She will need a new set of batteries if abundant voyaging capacity is desired. She has 2 new deep cycle batteries installed for the trip south from Alaska in 2014. She has capacity below for 7-9 #27 or #31 batteries. This Cal 48 is big and powerful and without modern labor saving aids like headsail furlers, she can be a real handful in gale conditions and above. Nevertheless we have sailed her shorthanded on long Pacific voyages with just hank on sails. I have extensive offshore experience on a variety of sail and power vessels and I can honestly say I have never sailed a boat as controllable , predictable, stable and comfortable as this Cal 48. Steve Dashew in his book the Offshore Handbook recommended the Cal 48 as an excelled example of classic plastic. But I digress… With the fully battened main and Hood furler, I could single hand her 10 years ago under mild to moderate conditions. The good news is that her sleek hull is easily driven with only modest canvas.. This boat like most old CCA racers is not a roomy beamy liveaboard apartment. She has no current shower and we removed the large water heater after it failed very early on. She was designed to go to distant places fast. That she does. In spades. To my knowledge Koho is structurally sound and most of the expensive refitting and strengthening has been done. If I were to keep her I would purchase a headsail furler, because in gale conditions Koho is perfectly balanced under just mizzen and staysail w or w/o a reefed main. I would install a new mainsheet traveler as well.
We may be reached at our mailing address: Hugh Owens, PO Box 309, Wilson WY 83014 or through our web sites: Cal48koho.wordpress.com or cal48koho.blogspot.com or at cal48.com. Our home phone is 307 203-2109. Call is 307 699-2254. I have additional pictures of the interior. There are a few short sailing videos of Koho on the other links listed as well as some pics under sail and at anchor.
I have previously posted Frank Landis’ work in a book entitled Hot Earth Dreams that I reviewed here and this report from a prominent peer reviewed geoscience journal was a stunner if their methodology is to be believed. I reproduce the March 21 2016 article in the British paper the Guardian in its entirety:
Humanity is pumping climate-warming carbon dioxide into the atmosphere 10 times faster than at any point in the past 66m years, according to new research.
The revelation shows the world has entered “uncharted territory” and that the consequences for life on land and in the oceans may be more severe than at any time since the extinction of the dinosaurs.
It comes as the World Meteorological Organisation released its Status of the Climate Report detailing a string of weather and climate records that were broken in 2015.
“The future is happening now,” said WMO secretary-general Petteri Taalas in a statement released alongside the report. “The alarming rate of change we are now witnessing in our climate as a result of greenhouse gas emission is unprecedented in modern records.”
Scientists have already warned that unchecked global warming will inflict “severe, widespread, and irreversible impacts” on people and the natural world.
But the new research shows how unprecedented the current rate of carbon emissions is, meaning geological records are unable to help predict the impacts of current climate change. Scientists have recently expressed alarm at the heat records shattered in the first months of 2016.
“Our carbon release rate is unprecedented over such a long time period in Earth’s history, [that] it means that we have effectively entered a ‘no-analogue’ state,” said Prof Richard Zeebe, at the University of Hawaii, who led the new work. “The present and future rate of climate change and ocean acidification is too fast for many species to adapt, which is likely to result in widespread future extinctions.”
Many researchers think the human impacts on the planet has already pushed it into a new geological era, dubbed the Anthropocene. Wildlife is already being lost at rates similar to past mass extinctions, driven in part by the destruction of habitats.
“The new results indicate that the current rate of carbon emissions is unprecedented … the most extreme global warming event of the past 66m years, by at least an order of magnitude,” said Peter Stassen, a geologist at the University of Leuven in Belgium, and who was not involved in the work
The new research, published in the journal Nature Geoscience, examined an event 56m years ago believed to be the biggest release of carbon into the atmosphere since the dinosaur extinction 66m years ago. The so-called Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) saw temperatures rise by 5C over a few thousand years.
But until now, it had been impossible to determine how rapidly the carbon had been released at the start of the event because dating using radiometry and geological strata lacks sufficient resolution. Zeebe and colleagues developed a new method to determine the rate of temperature and carbon changes, using the stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon.
It revealed that at the start of the PETM, no more than 1bn tonnes of carbon was being released into the atmosphere each year. In stark contrast, 10bn tonnes of carbon are released into the atmosphere every year by fossil fuel-burning and other human activity.
“The consequences are likely to be much more severe,” said Zeebe. “If you kick a system very fast, it usually responds differently than if you nudge it slowly but steadily.”
Scientists have warned that climate change may not cause temperature to rise steadily, but that “tipping points” – such as the loss of all Arctic ice or the mass release of methane from permafrost – could see much sharper and more dangerous changes. “If anthropogenic emissions rates have no analogue in Earth’s recent history, then unforeseeable future responses of the climate system are possible,” the researchers concluded.
“In studying one of the most dramatic episodes of global change since the end of the age of the dinosaurs, these scientists show that we are currently in uncharted territory in the rate carbon is being released into the atmosphere and oceans,” said Candace Major, from the US National Science Foundation, which funded the research.
The source of the PETM carbon emissions is thought to be the mass release of methane which had been frozen as hydrates on the ocean floor. It may have been triggered by a smaller initial release of carbon resulting from hot magma pushing into and melting large limestone deposits.
The importance of this research if correct cannot be overstated. There are possibly no relatively recent climate epochs which could be modeled to help explain and project scenarios going forward estimating the intensity of potential climatic impacts . If 1 GtC has been the average emission over millions of years and our man caused emissions are now 10+, then the impacts on our climate may not even be estimated either temporally or quantitatively. If we have an augmented explosion of Carbon from methane clathrates and hydrates even close to what happened in the PETM epoch, it will be Katie Bar the Door. More to the point, there may be nothing we can do in the way of Carbon emitting mitigation short of reducing emissions to Zero that would make any difference to the outcome. That is a sobering and depressing thought.
This is my first Daniel Silva Novel. It is apparently the 11th or 12th novel in the Gabriel Allon series, an Israeli intelligence operative/assasin).
The book begins with an explosion aboard a charter yacht in the Caribbean which kills a divorced English princess(read: Princess Di). The perp, Eamon Quinn, a master bomb maker formerly of the IRA, now a chef on the yacht, escapes in a Zodiac before the timer hits zero. Whodunit? MI-5 and MI-6 get involved tracking down Mr Quinn. Enter Christopher Keller, ex British commando who has been employed as a hit man by a mobster on Corsica but now gets drafted by British intelligence and Gabriel Allon, an Israeli assassin. The chase is on in Ireland, Northern Ireland, England and a variety of European venues. Enter a few Russian women, one a spy, one a mistress of the PM. Enter a few Russians who ordered the hit and who now want to snuff out Gabriel Allon. Boom! goes the bomb vaporizing some innocent women and children in London and almost Mr Allon who hides out in a safe house recovering from his injuries. It seems the bombmaker, Mr Quinn has now made his second attempt on Gabriel Allon, the first being an attempt which nailed Mr Allon’s family killing his son and brain damaging his wife. So now it’s revenge time. We find out that Mr Quinn was working for a higher up in Russia ,(Read: V. Putin). More chasing around Europe ensues until the Gunfight at the OK Corral back on the Aulde Sod . But Quinn slips out of the noose and we are treated to a tender interlude back in good ole Tel Aviv where Gabriel’s wife is great with child(twins). Allon is on paternity leave from taking over as head of Israeli Intelligence in Tel Aviv. You know Tel Aviv, right? It’s the place where Silva informs us “the missles rain down.,” on numerous occasions. The other British assassin, Chris Keller stays on the job chasing Mr Quinn all over the world finally plugging him in Argentina.
So how do I really feel about the book you ask? It’s acceptable Airport kiosk thriller trash by “#1 NY Times best selling Author Daniel Silva!” as the dust jacket screams.
Despite the predictable formulaic format the book does succeed on a few levels. It flows well with decent dialog and lots of action scenes including some nice torture if that is what rings your bell. The women characters come across as beautiful interesting women spies. Character development is marginal . The plot structure uses real world figures and current events as a substitute for coming up with something original. The whole thing is of course utterly implausible. Silva might as well be on permanent retainer to write propaganda action novels for British and Israeli Intelligence which pretty much describes the book.
This is a vapid, vacuous good guy/bad guy book with only British and Israeli action figures written for the type of readership who view the world through binary lenses. The good guys live in Merrie Old England and the Holy Land. The bad guys live in Ireland, Russia, Iran and the Middle East.
The bad thing is that Silva beats the poor reader over the head promoting his Zionist views clothed in a third rate thriller which had to have taken him at least two weekends to write. The good thing is that Daniel Silva is no longer working as a foreign correspondent reporting from the Middle East. I do believe that he could be a good writer in the thriller genre if he could spend a little more time on his craft, find a good editor, develop some original plot lines and maybe try to see the world in a more nuanced light. In the meanwhile if you want to read authors who have mastered the genre ,you need to look at Fredrick Forsyth. Ken Follett and Robert Ludlum and CJ Box. This was my first Silva novel as I stated at the outset. It will be my last.
My first intimation that all might not be right with my world was jacking up the Tahoe with a long handled floor jack and experiencing excessive fatigue for the level of exertion. I rested and the fatigue passed. Two days later on March 8, 2016, I was working out at the Teton Sports Club at near Cross Fit intensity and noticed marked exertion and some dyspnea and having to leave the class after I noticed some chest tightness. I showered and drove home and lay down waiting for the tightness and shortness of breath to abate. I had taken an aspirin worrying that the pain was at least cardiac based angina. When the pain persisted I took some motrin and a Vicodin which had no effect. The pain increased markedly and I began to sweat in the cool bedroom. I recognized this as diaphoresis , another well recognized symptom of an impending heart attack. I called my wife who left work and drove home to carry me to the emergency room. The staff at St John’s Hospital https://plus.google.com/+TetonhospitalOrg in Jackson rapidly attended to me slapping on Oxygen and monitoring leads as they performed an EKG. The look on the face of the Emergency Room Doctor showed alarm and I turned around and saw the Q waves and the ST segment elevation characteristic of an inferior myocardial infarction. Dr Adam Johnson, the ER Doc quickly put in two large Iv’s and moved me to the code room and began administering a narcotic analgesic and nitroglycerin to control the pain which was becoming more severe. I heard him call for our resident mountaineer/cardiologist, Dr Ellen Gallant. I was fully alert and aware of all the activity and discussion going on around me and I was pleased that the folks were following correct procedure in the right order. I looked at my wife a former ER nurse herself who appeared calm but concerned seated directly across from me. My daughter arrived in tears. I felt very calm myself and decided to relax knowing that allowing fear to take over would release adrenalin which could worsen an already bad situation. I was acutely aware of all conversations going on around me. It seemed my auditory acuity was enhanced. ER Medicine had been my profession for 15 years and I had taken care of many emergent chest pain patients in the same way that they were taking care of me. The two doctors conferred and told me that I was a candidate for emergency thrombolytic therapy, a relatively high risk treatment to try to dissolve the clot blocking blood flow in my heart. This was quickly administered and it was shortly thereafter that my vital signs deteriorated. Both pulse and blood pressure fell. At one point I heard the word “asystole” and felt my visual fields narrowing. I still felt hyper alert and aware. Dr Johnson’s face dropped in front of mine telling me “Dr Owens. Talk to me!” I thought to myself, “What am I supposed to say? I am fine and alert.” I decided to try to reassure him and tried to talk but found I couldn’t formulate any words. The thought occurred to me that I now might have had a stroke, a side effect of thrombolytic therapy. My wife also saw all this and said my blood pressure steadily began to fall from 80 to 60 to 40 to 20 and then to 0 along with no pulsation for a 10 second interval. I was surprised to still be crystal clear in my perception even as I heard ominous expressions like “He’s unresponsive. We’re losing him.”
I didn’t feel like I was being lost but I expected to crash momentarily as I saw them bring over the defibrillator. This was the only time I became alarmed because I didn’t want to be defibrillated while fully awake. The staff continued to administer cardiac drugs, dopamine and atropine. At one point there was discussion of the Atropine dose, .5 mg or 1 mg. I wanted to scream out “1 mg! Give me 1 mg.!” And just when the situation seemed most dire I heard someone say, “We got a pressure”. My pulse remained low and I heard Dr Gallant call for a balloon pacemaker and a cart was brought over. I could see them staring at the monitor and finally I heard reassuring words like”His pulse is coming back. His blood pressure is increasing.” Being in cardiogenic shock was extremely uncomfortable but as my vital signs improved I could feel the chest pain slowly starting to fade. Dr Gallant leaned over me and said I needed to have stint placement and she recommended that I be flown to Idaho Falls to Dr Kip Webb, an interventional cardiologist who was highly experienced in the procedure. I remember arguing with Dr Gallant that I might prefer going to Salt Lake City which was the regional referral center I used when I was still practicing. I also said I might prefer going in an ambulance instead of an aircraft. Dr Gallant said she had complete confidence in Dr Webb but that this was a time critical situation and that I need to get to Dr Webb as quickly as possible. Dr Gallant is a recently arrived cardiologist with many years of experience in one of the nation’s best Interventional Cardiology hospitals, Columbia Presbyterian in New York City. I decided to shut up and go with her plan. By now I was feeling markedly better with minimal chest pain and improving vital signs. From that point things began to move quickly. There was a snowstorm swirling over the Tetons and a helicopter was ruled out. A Swiss built fixed wing aircraft ambulance named a Pilatus PC-12 was already enroute to the Jackson Hole airport and I was quickly bundled up and loaded into an ambulance and rushed to the airport. My wife, Karlene, was told she might be able to fly with me and I heard someone ask her weight to decide if she was skinny enough to go. The ambulance pulled up to the runway and I was quickly loaded into the fuselage of the Pilatus and minutes later we lifted off the runway and climbed steeply into the snowstorm swirling over the Tetons. The aircraft was quiet and powerful and fast and we finally came out on top of the cloud layer into dazzling sunlight. Unfortunately I felt my chest pain returning. Looking at my EKG I saw my ST segment again lifting, a sign of deteriorating cardiac function. The nose of the Pilatus dropped as we began our descent into SE Idaho and skimmed over bare wheat and potato fields on approach to the Idaho Falls Airport. We landed smoothly and I was loaded into an ambulance and rushed to Eastern Idaho Regional Medical Center locally called EIRMC or “ERMAC”. Dr Webb was standing by the ER doors. He introduced himself to Karlene and myself and briefly stated his plan and in seconds I was taken direct to the Cath Lab where Dr Webb and his staff rapidly busied themselves for a stint placement. Dr Webb uses a radial artery approach instead of the more traditional groin approach which I was more familiar with. I watched him advance the guide wire and the stint on the monitor . I was experiencing moderately severe chest pain. He said. “It’s in place and I am inflating the balloon to 15 atmospheres”. The next second I felt an immediate abolition of my chest pain. I was simply stunned. The pain was gone…..completely gone!. Dr Webb placed a second stint lower down in my Right Coronary artery and then said “We’re done. I am going to get your wife so she can see what we did.” I think the whole procedure lasted no more than 15 or 20 minutes.
After a night in the cardiac unit , Karlene and I drove back to Wyoming to try to pick up our lives where we left off. I was extremely luck to have been in the right place at the right time, rapidly treated by experts who saved my life. Dr Webb said this approach can be not only life saving but heart muscle preserving if flow can be restored within a four hour window. Lucky me.
I want to state at the outset that this is the most important book extant on the subject of climate change. It is certainly one of the four or five most important books I have read in my life and it is a must read for anyone trying to escape the white noise of a civilization approaching stall speed after several hundred years of industrialization made possible by burning the accumulated energy of a few hundred million years of decayed animal and vegetable matter. That burning has had enormous consequence for the planet with an explosion of machines and technology, resource extraction and population growth unimaginable to the people toiling in the fields in a pre fossil fuel era a few hundred years ago. Like all explosions, there are consequences which will follow from the unrestricted burning of oil and gas and coal. That is where Frank Landis steps in with this master work of cause and effect, plausible projection and extrapolation of current trends spinning scenarios which are stunning and disturbing. Unique to his book are timelines of what our future world could look like in the near future. Landis maps this future as beginning when the world has shot its carbon emissions wad sometime in the next 50-100 years and continuing for the next 400,000 years. The early portion of that period beginning roughly at the turn of the next century he calls the High Altithermal which will cover about1500 years. The last 398,5000 years he calls the Deep Altithermal period. The High Altithermal is the period during which the earth continuously warms at about 1 degree C every 40 years peaking at about 5 to 8 deg C in the next 200-300 years. This will be a time of great meteorological change which includes sea level rise brought about by melting of the Greenland and the West Antarctic and East Antarctic ice sheets.
The key figures to remember are how many tons of carbon has been emitted to date and how many more will be emitted in the next 100 years. We have emitted 370 Gigatons of carbon in all our history since we climbed out of the trees onto an African savanna. Giga- = billion. Since 1970 we have emitted twice as much carbon into the atmosphere as we did in all human history prior to 1970. If we continue to emit business as usual, we are on track to emit anywhere from 1000 to 1400 GtC(giga-tons of carbon) by the time we are through by the end of this century. This emission will be matched or exceeded by other sources of carbon such as methane clathrates and methane hydrates being released in a thawing Arctic.
The reader must keep in mind that Landis is offering possible scenarios and timelines all based upon the work of climate scientists using models constructed since the advent of computers. The real value of his book is his broad encompassing eclectic approach to all the features of a warming world beyond climatic and meteorological change. For example how will all organisms and populations and nations adapt to these sudden changes? How will language change? What empires will rise or fall? Will this period we call the anthropocene of evolved humankind cease to exist? What will happen to our economic, social and political structures? What civilizations who have risen and fallen before can contribute to the argument.
Additionally Frank Landis has many chapters on how we humans perceive such a discounted future by clinging to faulty reasoning such as binary thinking, by focusing upon a
Revelations style Apocalypse and wishful thinking where Technology will save us. THEY will think of something, right????
Implicit in his book is a tacit assumption that we are dealing with a collapse of world civilization and a massive die off at some point in the not too distant future. Landis tiptoes around this subject and rarely spins dramatic Mad Max cinematic visions. Only rarely does he get explicit of what might happen and how bad it could be. He is a little more daring in his excellent blog: heteromeles.com. In a recent post he imagined what his home state of California might look like at the end of this century. For example he gives the current population of California(39 million) and estimated population in 2050(52 million) and assumes a 95% die-off by the end of the century taking it to 2.6 million which is still ten times the population before the white man arrived. His statics are cold and dry and he eschews delving into what a 95% die-off would look like, what human suffering it would involve. Whew!
Landis structures the book in a unique fashion keeping chapters short as he jumps from subject to subject. It makes for a book which is read chapter by chapter and can be put down without the reader losing his thread. After all this is not a CJ Box thriller.
The book suffers at times from errors of fact and spelling and syntax and it could use a good edit. Some of the terms he uses such as Terafart referring to a Trillion tons of Carbon is jarring to this reader as well as use of street slang like “…this sucks…” and similar expressions mars what is an otherwise extremely well reasoned and highly readable sentence and paragraph structure. He can be humorous and witty as he lays out a really apocalyptic future. His book is detailed and scientific and well annotated with an extensive bibliography. I do feel that he could add more facets to his diamond such as how and why and if these die-offs are inevitable and how they might look. He also needs a chapter or two on the physics of energy and how it relates to fossil based food, goods and service production and how or if so called renewable energy might mitigate his scenarios.
This copy is a published on demand book which needs a big name publishing house to take over production and distribution to get it the audience it deserves. Hot Earth Dreams 1.0 is an amazing effort and this reader is looking forward to version 2.0 .